Table of Contents
- Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike with Resistance ME-709
- Ease of Use and Comfort
- Resistance and drive systems
- Assembly and Maintenance
- Features and Specifications
- Packaging & Assembly
- Assembly and Parts
- SMART DESIGN
- EIGHT RESISTANCE LEVELS
- LCD COMPUTER SCREEN
- PADDED SEAT
- COUNTERBALANCED PEDALS
- MARCY RECUMBENT MAG CYCLE BIKE PROS
- Low fee
- Small footprint
- Variable resistance
- Sturdy and well-built
- Quiet and clean
- Soft, full get entry to
- Adjustable seat
- Easy assembly
- MARCY RECUMBENT MAG CYCLE BIKE CONS
- Seat comfort
- Backrest role
- No exercising packages
- No heart rate display
- Monitor installation
- Are recumbent bikes a good workout?
- Are recumbent bikes better for your knees?
- Which Stationary Bike Burns More Calories?
- Points to Keep in Mind
- Is the recumbent bike good for weight loss?
- WHY BUY A RECUMBENT BIKE?
- MARCY ME-709 RECUMBENT EXERCISE BIKE SPECS
- Seat to pedal
- User weight restrictions
- WHO WILL THIS BIKE BEST SUIT?
- MARCY ME-709 RECUMBENT EXERCISE BIKE SUMMARY
Marcy Recumbent Exercise Bike with Resistance ME-709
The Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 is the precise alternative for buying your much-wanted aerobic. As one of the maximum low-cost recumbent bikes within the market, this version is without a doubt inside everyone’s attaining.
Getting returned in shape at domestic has never been less complicated. Forget buying strolling tools, gym memberships, and walking shoes. Don’t fear about chilly autumn weather and cold weather climate anymore. You can do all of the aerobic your frame wishes to live fit interior – within the safety, warmth, and comfort of domestic.
Besides, in case you evaluate it to the price of a gym membership (approximately $360/12 months.), with this model, you will virtually be saving quite a chunk of cash!
Marcy is one of the most valuable UK fitness gadget manufacturers which has been present on the market since 1946. Contrary to workout bikes that aren’t most effective difficult to use, however, come with small chairs, the Mag Cycle provides you with an irreplaceable at ease chair, which prioritizes the biking enjoy while making sure your returned remains in a functional role. This manner, the device enables your awareness of your cardiovascular device absolutely, hence raising your strength.
The Mag Cycle is a fantastically comfortable recumbent bike for such an inexpensive rate. Indeed, it’s the thickly padded seat, and seatback offers a high-quality deal of consolation, and to make matters even better, are completely adjustable! This method that also if you’re as brief as five toes tall, you may nevertheless use it readily. Additionally, its step-through design combined with its perfectly placed handlebars makes for a clean and safe getting on and off.
What we truly favored about this version is that it comes with counterbalanced pedals. This Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 means that you can use either pedal onwards or backward without losing any resistance, hence you may exercising extraordinary muscle mass of your legs without any besides adjustment!
This bike is also extraordinarily clean to apply, as it is pretty simple, so even novice and aged users may be able to cope with it and get their workouts carried out on their personal.
To summarize, this model was intended to be relaxed, to have smooth mounting and dismounting, and to have straight forward and simple laptop display readouts.
The resistance can also be changed easily with the aid of adjusting the anxiety-tightening knob. There is not anything overly complicated or techy about this gadget.
The Marcy ME 709 features a metallic body with a comfortable, walk-thru design, powder-covered with anti-corrosive paint. The framework makes of principal portions that connect inside the center.
The rear part capabilities adjustment holes, while the front part has a quick-adjustment knob, which secures the connection between the two elements, at your preferred length placing.
In different words, the complete rear has fore to aft adjustability, supplying a period-sensible modification of the frame. The Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 healthy users between 5’2″ and 6’6″ (152 – 198 cm) effectively. Users shorter than five’2″ may not be capable of attaining the pedals even though the motorbike’s frame is at minimum length setting.
However, this can be constant by way of cutting a couple of inches from the rear body bar and drilling some more significant adjustment holes in it.
Even though this recumbent motorcycle appears alternatively sincerely constructed, the metallic tubing that connects to the seat is genuinely sincerely stable.
The bike is indexed to guide customers up to 300 lbs. However, many heavier users (up to 350 lbs. Or maybe extra) have pronounced that they have been using it without any hassle.
The rear part of the body, in conjunction with the primary bar characteristic, squared tubing for extra durability. However, the console mast and the bases of the frame manufacture from a cylindrical pipe.
The bases function plastic caps on their ends, to deliver a better balance for the motorcycle, even as the first base includes delivery wheels. Since typical the motorbike isn’t that heavy, weighing best 64 lbs, it’s clean to be tilted on its front wheels to move.
This Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 state, shifting the bike for garage shouldn’t be trouble even for an elderly consumer, or someone with an incapacity.
Last but no longer least, this Marcy exercise bike version isn’t precisely the giant recumbent bike out there. However, it still does have a rather massive footprint.
A maximum period setting, it measures 55.5″L x 25″W (141 x 63.5 cm). Therefore, make sure you have got the available space for it before buying.
Resistance and drive systems
This recumbent bike model capabilities a magnetic resistance mechanism. The resistance is manually adjustable, related to a magnetic brake pad related to a knob, via a sharp wire.
By turning the knob, the magnetic pad is moved farther or closer concerning the bike’s flywheel, developing more or less resistance. There are, without a doubt, 8 tiers of strength designated at the knob, and also, you should be capable of discovering at the least some which feel greater appropriate on your education.
But as a well-known concept, the maximum level of resistance isn’t excessive. It does offer, though, the specified amount of anxiety for a more exceptional, consistent exercise.
The force gadget of the motorbike entails a small, magnetic flywheel, a heavy-obligation belt, and a durable pulley, with steel crank palms. The bike’s crank hands are finished with weighted pedals, presenting straps for securing toes all through exercises. The whole force/brake assembly is shrouded in a case made metal and plastic cloth.
Since the bike features magnetic resistance, the elements that generate its strength, inclusive of the flywheel and the magnetic pad, do now not touch, ensuing in without a doubt no put on and tear. On top of that, the motorbike is truly quiet, appropriate for rental buildings.
Since it’s a basic recumbent motorbike version, the Marcy ME 709 features handiest a first overall performance monitoring reveal. This unit can tune pace, time, calories, and distance, additionally having an odometer characteristic. Length is measured in Miles, even as the speed counted in MPH. It doesn’t have any built-in schooling programs.
The console is surely smooth to apply. It capabilities best one button, and has a SCAN feature which can cycle throughout all the values that it could tune. Each value will stay on the screen for 4 seconds.
However, you may also track the handiest one of the values, which include distance, or time if you want. The console will automatically turn on as you pedal, and will also mechanically turn off after 8 minutes of state of being inactive on the bike, with a view to store strength.
The console calls for 2 AA-type batteries. All the values stored on the console reset while the cells replace or removed.
Assembly and Maintenance
The ME 709 Marcy exercise bike is straightforward to collect. It shouldn’t take more than an hour. There are several steps for the meeting system which require you to attach the two principal portions of the body, connect the rear and the front base, the seat, backrest and the console mast, the recumbent handlebars, the pedals, and connect the anxiety cord and the velocity sensor to the console. Documentation and gear for the meeting furnish as correctly.
Since the motorbike functions a magnetic resistance gadget, preservation would not require a whole lot the least bit. You essentially need to dispose of the dust and ability dust with a moist cloth from the frame and re-tighten the bolts if it’s the case.
Features and Specifications
- Product Dimensions: 55 x 40 x 25”
- Product Weight: 66lbs
- Maximum Capacity: 300lbs
- Resistance Levels: 8
The Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 is a completely first recumbent bike that, because of its meager priced fee, doesn’t include quite a few functions. Although it comes with the important ones to make for a powerful and fun workout.
This model comes with 8 degrees of magnetic resistance, which can effortlessly adjust through its tension-tightening knob on every occasion you need to change the power.
Whether you’re in the mood for a mild exercising before breakfast or you have a rigorous exercising ordinary that requires you to push the restriction, this bike can compromise with you.
Any member of your household can use it – out of your athletic son for your father since a simple adjustment of the anxiety-tightening knob will assist you in suit the exercise to your fitness degree.
However, it doesn’t come with any pre-programmed exercising; you ought to customize your exercise to precise fitness goals.
The outsized console is easy to read and handle and presentations health facts together with energy, time, distance, and velocity, that you could either change every few seconds or restoration on your desire. Unfortunately, though, this version doesn’t include a coronary heart rate reveal.
This Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 is an entirely mild bike, which means that during combination with the built-in mobility wheels, you’ll never experience a problem or want any help. At the same time, you decide to transport it elsewhere, which is quite handy.
Besides its exceptional rate, some other notable function approximately this recumbent motorbike is that it’s miles quite. While in operation so that you’ll be capable of use it without demanding the rest of your circle of relatives, or experience of a terrific movie or book even as operating out.
It’s additionally convenient for mothers that need to exercise even as their youngsters are resting. People dwelling in residences (mainly ones with roommates) need to have this. And final, shift employees who work a spread of hours might be able to stay in form while not having to awake their family as they move about their workout.
Packaging & Assembly
The bike came in a single bundle, and the whole lot become tightly full of cardboard and foam. The entire package ought to have weighed approximately 65 lbs, so the shipping man has to some ‘amusing.’
The assembly itself becomes quite clean, plausible by one individual, but if you keep in mind no longer robust sufficient, you may want a person’s assist to tighten the whole thing up. The complete assembly should not take you multiple hours. The assembled dimensions are fifty-five.
Assembly and Parts
Assembly is required, but even a beginner might be able to bring it out. The complete bike may assemble in less than 20 mins with reasonably-priced wrenches. You will need to go out and buy two AA batteries for the pc, even though. There are not any AA batteries protected inside the product package deal.
Marcy designed this Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 to be smooth to mount and dismount with its step-via design. While different bikes may motive injury while you try to climb on, this model enables that hazard. Just stroll via and take a seat down. This characteristic makes it an outstanding motorbike for seniors.
The superb design doesn’t stop there. Marcy constructed this Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709, heavy-duty components that not intended to ultimate. You will find 14-gauge metal tubing and different durable parts.
EIGHT RESISTANCE LEVELS
Tim Church, a researcher on the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, informed NPR that c programming language training is “a very efficient manner to boom your fitness speedy.” If that’s something you want to pursue, you need a Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 with several resistance settings.
The 8 settings on the Marcy ME-709 let you pedal intensely for a short while, after which gradual down. When you repeat this cycle, you entire c program language period schooling, which permits you to get healthier quicker, the easy-to-turn knob makes switching synch.
The eight resistance degrees aren’t just for people who need to practice c program language period schooling. It can also support you continue to push yourself as you get more potent. When one level gets too comfortable, flip the knob. If you’re feeling off at some point, flip it back for a less complicated exercise.
LCD COMPUTER SCREEN
As you pedal in your desk-bound bike, your stats let you sense a feeling of achievement and force you to complete extra miles. This bike allows you to track your speed, time, distance, and energy burned on one clean-to-study screen.
The statistics are displayed in significant numbers so that you don’t must squint or disrupt your trip simply to look at how you’re doing. It’s an outstanding function that can maintain you are going.
If your Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 is uncomfortable to take a seat on, will you ever want to use it? Many humans could now not. That’s why this motorbike includes a padded seat that is comfy to sit down.
Not best is the seat padded, but it also designed to fit your body. While a few bike seats seem to paintings towards you, this one contour to you.
Have you ever been on a Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 and felt like you had little manipulated over the pedals? If so, those pedals may not be weighted. On the Marcy ME-709, you may discover counterbalanced brakes that are flawlessly weighted. This Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 gives your toes more exceptional support and leaves you on top of things.
Furthermore, this bike consists of adjustable foot straps. You can get the appropriate match every time and help save you injury.
There are some disadvantages worth bringing up approximately the Mag Cycle, relying on the way you examine it. However, even though there is not a single predominant difficulty well worth pointing out with this version. Some customers have regretted the fact that it doesn’t include a coronary heart charge monitoring alternative, even though this is justified using being such a lower-priced model.
Additionally, the more significant superior users may need some additional features, wherein case they should look for superior fashions, including the Schwinn 230 and 270.
MARCY RECUMBENT MAG CYCLE BIKE PROS
The Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 is one of the tremendous first-class recumbent bikes you may discover for the price.
While no longer as compact as an upright bike, this Marcy stationary bike has a smaller footprint than most recumbent models. This Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 makes it more appropriate than most for anyone with restrained space.
Variable resistance makes the Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 a viable choice for both new and extra experienced exercisers. This characteristic also allows the depth of workouts to be accelerated over time because the bike owner’s fitness improves.
Sturdy and well-built
More massive customers can thoroughly use the Marcy ME-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike without fear of it tipping over.
The motorbike remains grounded, even during quick workouts carried out at excessive velocity.
Quiet and clean
Magnetic resistance lets in for smooth, nearly silent classes, with clean transitioning among resistance ranges.
Soft, full get entry to
Getting onto and stale the seat is straightforward. You can use the armrests for a guide while reducing yourself onto or alighting from the position. A 21 1/2″ hole among them permits get entry to for more significant constructed people. If you want a more fabulous room, you could take away the armrests.
An adjustable seat way the Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 may be custom designed to deal with not only you but also others for your family who wants to use it.
The seat is 19 inches above ground level, making it ideal for anybody who is lacking in flexibility or unsteady on their ft.
Assembling the Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 takes approximately one hour, tops. The tools wanted for this are covered.
The Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 comes with a 2-yr guarantee for its body.
MARCY RECUMBENT MAG CYCLE BIKE CONS
A firmly padded seat and ergonomically angled lower back provide pretty a cozy exercise platform. However, the Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 doesn’t have as a good deal padding as some more fabulous costly bikes.
Many owners have said that they use the bike for thirty mins or extra at a stretch without a problem. Others have put a cushion or towel at the seat for additional padding or sold a bicycle seat cowl.
One that works nicely with the bike is the Domain Extra Large Gel Exercise Seat.
The backrest of the Marcy ME-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike screws into the area, so it is not adjustable. It will nevertheless match people of maximum heights. Anyone below five toes tall can also place a pillow in opposition to the backrest to allow them to reach the pedals quite merely.
No exercising packages
This model doesn’t have any preset exercising programs. However, this does not involve it from offering effective exercise.
No heart rate display
The Marcy ME-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike doesn’t include a heart price reveal. If you need to apply one with the motorcycle, you may want to buy it at an extra value.
Wiring up the display is a bit fiddly. A more extended screwdriver than the only supplied, or a double coat hanger or piece of twine will facilitate the task.
Are recumbent bikes a good workout?
Are you tired of searching for the only aerobic system? With such a lot of alternatives to pick from (treadmills, ellipticals, rowing machines, and desk-bound motorcycles), it can be tough to determine how to get started. Each piece of system offers something a bit different. Depending on your non-public alternatives and willingness to assignment yourself, any of those machines can provide amazing advantages.
Some people revel in doing aerobic exercises while in a standing function. Others opt for the extra assist of sitting down. Recumbent motorcycles remain a widespread desire for seated exercises, because of their comfortable seats and decrease returned aid.
The effectiveness of any cardio pastime is base on how hard you work at some stage in the training session. Accordance with the US College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), recumbent bikes provide a safe and powerful exercise that offers each low and excessive effect on alternatives.
Are recumbent bikes better for your knees?
What is your chosen piece of workout gadget at the health club? Treadmill? Rower? Stationary bike? If you replied desk bound bike, is it an upright or recumbent motorcycle? Is there a distinction? In simple terms, one kind is outstanding from the opposite through the placement of the rider. Regardless of your response, desk-bound bicycles are a secure and effective means of exercise in line with the US College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)as the bikes offer the option for a low-effect cardiovascular activity.
Stationary bikes, each recumbent and upright, vicinity less stress at the joints, then some different cardio system alternatives and are incredibly relaxed after you turn out to be conversant in sitting inside the saddle, or seat, for a prolonged time frame. Recumbent bikes, specifically, are an excellent alternative for people with low again ache as the motorcycle provides brought aid for the returned.
Recumbent motorcycles are also exact for folks that are new to cycling. The backside line: a recumbent motorbike can provide a cardiovascular workout for users of definitely all ability levels.
Want to present it a try but can’t determine which type of stationary bike is high-quality for you? The following might help you decide the time for one piece of equipment in the course of your workout.
Which Stationary Bike Burns More Calories?
Have you involved approximately maximizing calories and weight loss, when finding out between a recumbent bike and an upright motorbike? Each motorcycle has advantages, so one can be enticing relying upon your significant goals.
However, both motorcycles produce equal Calorie and weight reduction Potentials. It all comes right down to what you are inclined to place into your workout, the more complicated your figure, the more improvement you may see.
Decide which motorcycle will be satisfactory for you through looking at the above gain features for every motorbike, then be inclined to work challenging to reap your health goals.
A person desires to discover an exercising routine that he or she enjoys and will stay with for the lengthy haul. A stationary bike may be a critical part of that routine mainly for someone new to exercising or a person with again, knee, or joint problems that make different forms of cardiovascular exercise hard.
Also, in case you manifest to be someone that uses excuses along with the heat, cold, or rain to curtail your everyday workout habitual, the desk-bound motorbike throws those excuses out the window. Because it’s interior, you don’t need to fear approximately inclement climate, says exercising physiologist Kelli Calabrese. And, in case you do not belong to a gymnasium, you could use an upright or recumbent stationary motorbike at domestic.
I can do it looking television, says Elaine Magee, MPH, RD, WebMD Weight Loss Clinic’s Recipe Doctor. I can do it at night time, while it’s darkish, while it is raining or bloodless. It’s a top-notch manner to burn calories and fats stores, and it’s a good oxygen raise.
Points to Keep in Mind
A man or woman desires to find an exercising ordinary that she or he enjoys and could stay with for the long haul. A stationary motorcycle can be an essential part of that routine in particular for someone new to exercising or someone with back, knee, or joint troubles that make different sorts of cardiovascular using hard.
Besides, in case you happen to be a person that uses excuses, including the heat, bloodless, or rain to alleviate your daily exercise routine, the desk-bound bike throws the one’s excuses out the window. Because it is interior, you don’t have to worry approximately inclement climate, says workout physiologist Kelli Calabrese. And, in case you do not belong to a gymnasium, you may use an upright or recumbent desk bound motorcycle at domestic.
I can do it looking television, says Elaine Magee, MPH, RD, WebMD Weight Loss Clinic’s Recipe Doctor. I can do it at night time, while it’s darkish when it’s raining or bloodless. It’s a high-quality way to burn calories and fat stores, and it’s excellent oxygen enhance.
Whether you practice an upright or recumbent stationary bike–at domestic or within the fitness center–keep these crucial points in mind:
- Check to make specific the stationary motorbike is located, so all transferring elements are allowed tight clearance.
- Ensure there is adequate room to mount and dismount the motorcycle securely.
- Position the handlebar and seat peak before starting to cycle. Find your ideal function within the seat. Proper positioning is crucial, so you have a safe and effective exercising.
Keep in mind that ache inside the front of your knee generally approaches. There is too much knee bend and ache inside the returned manner. There’s also little knee bend. Read extra approximately how to set up your motorbike for optimum blessings.
Is the recumbent bike good for weight loss?
I like the stationary motorbike for weight loss over the recumbent motorcycle. With the stationary bike, you need to use extra postural muscle tissues to carry out your workout. With the recumbent bike, you’re going to use fewer muscle tissues in your lower back and hips to stabilize your large leg muscle doing the work. The principal element to don’t forget in weight loss is, “the extra muscle you can work in keeping with workout session the additional your metabolism will increase growth with the intention to boom your calorie burn over the next 1-2 days.
When it involves what form of device you use for aerobic, it sincerely does no longer depend on what you operate. The most straightforward distinction among the desk-certain bike and the recumbent bike is a seat like a chair to protect yours once more.
If you have lower back issues and also you wish to begin or continue an aerobic software through the use of a device, then the recumbent bike is the manner to head.
Either motorcycle that you use to get the most out of that exercising, you must project yourself with the aid of adjusting the resistance stages at the bike.
Many bikes have exceptional workout alternatives at the motorbike consisting of fats loss or heart charges. If you pick out one of these applications, it will robotically alter the time and resistance settings to the excellent option for you.
A stationary motorcycle is more powerful when used in a spinning magnificence. Is spinning elegance too severe for you? Start with a recumbent motorbike. The majority of digital fitness system is a program with tiers which include, newbie, intermediate, and superior.
Follow each degree for 2-3 weeks, when all levels finished, bypass to a table-bound motorcycle, and repeat. Within 12-18 weeks, depending on motivation, attend a spinning class with proper garb (biking shorts w/right padding, I found this out the painful manner!) and continuously increase fat loss.
WHY BUY A RECUMBENT BIKE?
A recumbent bike is a super workout option for each person who loves biking but unearths it stressful on their joints. It gives all of the benefits of cycling on a regular street or upright stationary motorcycle, alongside the added gain of its pedals being only slightly beneath seat level.
This positioning means that the bike owner’s legs are extended to the front as opposed to underneath their body as they pedal, so less strain is located on the knees, ankles, and again.
There are numerous manufacturers and fashions of recumbent exercising motorbike. One in the lower price bracket that has validated to be always famous with customers is the Marcy ME-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike, which we have a look.
MARCY ME-709 RECUMBENT EXERCISE BIKE SPECS
The Marcy Me-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike measures 55.5″ (L) x 24.Five″ (W) x 38″ (H).
Seat to pedal
The seat to pedal distance can adjust to among 26″ and 33″.
It weighs sixty-one lbs.
User weight restrictions
The endorsed upper consumer weight restriction for this model is 300 kilos. Far more massive human beings declare to have used it without a hassle. However, it’s wise to observe the producer’s hints.
The reveal calls for 2 x AA batteries. These not blanketed.
This model is available in a modern-day Black/Gray/Copper mixture.
WHO WILL THIS BIKE BEST SUIT?
Coming with variable resistance, this model is suitable for cyclists of maximum health degrees, along with first-timers and those with some revel.
Very experienced cyclists may additionally require a model capable of supplying extra hard workouts.
It is going to be mainly appreciated using those whose fitness and weight loss efforts had hindered by ache, mobility problems, or injury.
MARCY ME-709 RECUMBENT EXERCISE BIKE SUMMARY
If you’re looking for an inexpensive stationary bike that has the entirety you may want to improve your health and health, the Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 must be for your shortlist.
The bike’s variable resistance will allow you to increase the venture of your exercises so that you don’t hit a plateau. A further advantage is that human beings of differing fitness levels can be capable of proportion the motorbike.
The bikes easy to get entry to the seat may be adjusted to suit the individual’s desire. It additionally makes the bike suitable for people of virtually any height.
Able to support customers weighing as much as 300 kilos, more massive customers have left excellent remarks for the Marcy Recumbent Bike. I would, but propose that all and sundry over the recommended weight limit bear in mind an exceptional version.
Having magnetic resistance, the Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 provides a clean and enormously quiet experience.
While a few customers said they would like the seat to have extra padding, most are happy with it as is and locate it to be cozy.
The Marcy recumbent exercise bike with resistance me-709 doesn’t have any preset exercising applications. However, it can supply as exact an exercising as some ways more fabulous highly-priced models, which include a range of applications and accessories that a few customers gained ever get round to the use.
This model does now not come with a heart fee monitor. If you would like to apply one at the side of your Marcy ME-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike, there are various brands and fashions available so that it will in shape.
With excellent comments and critiques from many satisfied clients, in case you would like to experience the benefits a desk-bound exercising bike can offer, the Marcy ME-709 Recumbent Exercise Bike would be an extraordinary purchase.